Connect with us


Scientists use fMRI and AI to decipher language signals in the brain: gunshots



This video still shows a view of the cerebral cortex of one person. Pink areas have above average activity; blue areas have below average activity.

Jerry Tang and Alexander Hut

hide title

toggle signature

Jerry Tang and Alexander Hut

This video still shows a view of the cerebral cortex of one person. Pink areas have above average activity; blue areas have below average activity.

Jerry Tang and Alexander Hut

Scientists have found a way to decode the stream of words in the brain using fMRI and artificial intelligence.

The system reconstructs the essence of what a person hears or imagines, rather than trying to reproduce every word, command reports In the magazine Neurology of nature.

“It’s about the ideas behind the words, the semantics, the meaning,” says Alexander Hutresearch author and assistant professor of neuroscience and computer science at the University of Texas at Austin.

However, this technology cannot read minds. This only works when the participant is actively collaborating with scientists.

However, language deciphering systems may someday help people who are unable to speak due to brain injury or illness. They also help scientists understand how the brain processes words and thoughts.

Previous attempts to decode language have relied on sensors placed directly on the surface of the brain. Sensors detect signals in areas involved in the articulation of words.

But the Texas team’s approach is an attempt to “decipher freer thought.” Marcel Justprofessor of psychology at Carnegie Mellon University who was not involved in the new study.

That could mean he has applications beyond socializing, he says.

“One of the biggest scientific medical challenges is understanding mental illness, which is ultimately a dysfunction of the brain,” Just says. “I think that such a general approach will someday solve this mystery.”

Podcasts in MRI

The new study was carried out as part of an attempt to understand how the brain processes language.

The researchers asked three people to spend up to 16 hours each in a functional MRI scanner that detects signs of activity in the brain.

Participants wore headphones that played audio from podcasts. “For the most part, they just lay there and listened to stories from Moth Radio HourHut says.

These streams of words caused activity throughout the brain, not just in areas related to speech and language.

“It turns out that a huge amount of the brain is doing something,” Huth says. “So the areas we use for navigation, the areas we use for mental arithmetic, the areas we use to process that we like to touch things.”

After the participants listened to the stories for hours on the scanner, the MRI data was sent to a computer. He learned to match certain patterns of brain activity with certain streams of words.

The team then asked the participants to listen to the new stories in the scanner. The computer then attempted to reconstruct these stories from each participant’s brain activity.

The system received a lot of help in building understandable sentences from artificial intelligence: an early version of the well-known natural language processing program. ChatGPT.

What came out of the system was a paraphrased version of what the participant heard.

So if a participant heard the phrase “I didn’t even have a driver’s license yet,” the transcribed version could be “she hasn’t even learned to drive yet,” Huth says. According to him, in many cases the decoded version contained errors.

In another experiment, the system was able to paraphrase words that the person had just imagined being spoken.

In the third experiment, participants watched videos that told a story without using words.

“We didn’t ask the subjects to try to describe what was happening,” Huth says. “And yet what we got was such a language description of what’s going on in the video.”

Non-invasive window to the tongue

The MRI approach is currently slower and less accurate than an experimental communication system being developed for paralyzed people by a group led by Dr. Edward Chang at the University of California at San Francisco.

“People are implanted with a sheet of electrical sensors directly on the surface of the brain,” says David Mosesresearcher from Chang’s lab: “It records brain activity very close to the source.”

The sensors detect activity in areas of the brain that normally give verbal commands. At least one person has been able to use the system to accurately generate 15 words per minute using only their thoughts.

But with an MRI-based system, “nobody has to do the surgery,” says Moses.

Neither approach can be used to read a person’s mind without their cooperation. In the Texas study, people were able to defeat the system simply by telling themselves a different story.

But future versions may raise ethical questions.

“It’s very exciting, but also a little scary at the same time,” Huth says. What if you could read the word someone just thought in their head? It’s a potentially harmful thing.”

Moses agrees.

“The thing is that the user has a new way of communicating, a new tool that is completely under his control,” he says. “That’s the goal and we need to make sure it remains the goal.”

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


Two hospitals are under federal investigation into the care of a pregnant woman who refused an abortion.




The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are investigating two hospitals that “failed to provide essential stabilizing care to a person experiencing a medical emergency in violation of the Emergency Medical Services and Labor Act (EMTALA)”, according to letter from US Secretary of Health and Human Services Xavier Becerra.

Under the EMTALA, healthcare professionals are required to “offer treatment, including abortion, that the provider reasonably determines is necessary to stabilize the patient’s emergency medical condition,” Becerra said Monday in a letter to the national associations of hospitals and healthcare providers.

V National Women’s Law Centerwhose statement says it filed the original EMTALA complaint on behalf of Milissa Farmer, identified the hospitals as Freeman Hospital West of Joplin, Missouri, and the University of Kansas Health System in Kansas City, Kansas.

The patient was 18 weeks pregnant when her membranes ruptured prematurely, writes Becerra, but was told her pregnancy was not viable.

“While her doctors told her that her condition could deteriorate rapidly, they also told her that they were unable to provide her with care that would prevent infection, bleeding, and possibly death because, they said, hospital policy forbade treatment that could be considered an abortion,” wrote Becerra.

Becerra added in a statement on Monday: “Fortunately, this patient survived. But she never had to go through the horrific ordeals she experienced in the first place. We want her and every patient like her to know that we will do everything we can to protect their lives and health, and to investigate and enforce the law to the fullest extent of our legal powers.”

Abortion is illegal in Missouri, with some exceptions, such as to save the mother’s life. State law requires a consultation and a 72-hour waiting period. In Kansas, abortion is generally prohibited at 22 weeks’ gestation or later, with a 24-hour waiting period and mandatory consultation.

Passed in 1986, the EMTALA requires hospitals to provide stabilizing treatment to patients with acute illnesses or transfer them to facilities where such care will be provided, regardless of any conflicting state laws or regulations.

Changes in state laws following the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision to end the right to abortion have left many hospitals and health care providers unsure of what steps they can legally take in such cases. HHS published guide confirmed last year that EMTALA requires providers to offer stabilizing care for emergencies that may include abortion.

Hospitals found to be in violation of EMTALA may lose their agreements with Medicare and Medicaid providers and face administrative sanctions. An individual doctor may also face civil sanctions if they are found to be violating the rules.

HHS can impose a fine of $119,942 per violation for hospitals with more than 100 beds and $59,973 for hospitals with fewer than 100 beds. A doctor can be fined $119,942 for a violation.

The National Women’s Law Center says the new actions are the first since Roe v. Wade was upended that EMTALA was used against a hospital that refused an emergency abortion.

“Patient care has been reviewed by the hospital and found to be consistent with hospital policy,” the University of Kansas Health System said in a statement to CNN. “It met the standard of medical care based on the facts known at the time and complied with all applicable laws. CMS has a procedure for dealing with this complaint and we respect that procedure. The University of Kansas Health System follows federal and Kansas laws in providing appropriate, stabilizing, and quality care for all of its patients, including obstetric patients.”

Freeman Hospital did not immediately respond to CNN’s request for comment.

An HHS spokesman told CNN that both hospitals are working to comply with the law.

In a legal center statement, Farmer said she was pleased with the investigation, “but pregnant women across the country continue to be denied medical care and face an increased risk of complications or death, and this must stop. I’ve dealt with an unimaginable loss before, and the hospitals have made things difficult. I’m still emotionally struggling with what happened to me, but I’m determined to keep fighting because no one else has to go through this.”

Continue Reading


Sudanese National Health Service doctor finally allowed to return to UK



He is currently being evacuated from Khartoum after being initially turned down because British citizens were a priority.

Continue Reading


Rihanna finally arrived at the Met Gala in a literal cloud



If the Met Gala is held in New York and Rihanna doesn’t show up, will it even happen? Thank God we didn’t have to search for the answer to this question, because the queen is here! What is she So late, but she’s here!

On Monday, May 1, Rihanna climbed the iconic steps at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in a look that will be hard to beat next year – even for RiRi. The mom-to-be, who opened up about her second pregnancy during an appearance on the Super Bowl halftime show earlier this year, arrived in what is essentially a white cocoon of rosettes. The Valentino look, which featured an ivory skirt with a train that required multiple styling, covered the singer from head to toe in bridal white, probably a Chanel tribute to Karl Lagerfeld’s fiancée.

Evening dress code “in honor of Carl” has received many interpretations, but let Rihanna come in something completely unique.

Lexi Moreland/Getty Images

The superstar donned white cat-eye sunglasses with false eyelashes and a thick ivory cuff. To complete the look, she painted her lips in bright red. A$AP Rocky was also there, wearing jeans and a red Gucci plaid skirt.

NEW YORK, NEW YORK – MAY 01: Rihanna attends the 2023 “Karl Lagerfeld: Beauty Line” Gala at The Metropolitan Museum of Art on May 1, 2023 in New York City. (Photo by Dimitrios Kambouris/Getty Images for The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Vogue)Dimitrios Kambouris/Getty Images

Continue Reading