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Scientists criticize NASA for cutting Pluto exploration mission | Space



It may have reached the edge of the solar system and traveled more than 5 billion miles in space, but the New Horizons spacecraft is causing major turmoil on Earth. The dispute flared up between scientists and US space officials after NASA’s decision to stop funding the ship’s primary mission next year.

Alan Stern, principal investigator at New Horizons, called the move “misguided and unfortunate.”

“From a scientific point of view, this is a mistake,” he said. Observer. Several other leading scientists supported him.

NASA has said it has no intention of completely shutting down the spacecraft, but will provide some funding so the craft can continue to study space weather and other phenomena. But its main task – the study of the composition of the planets – will continue.

New Horizons was designed to study the Kuiper Belt, a doughnut-shaped ring of icy objects left over from the formation of planets on the Sun billions of years ago. For decades, researchers have dreamed of getting close-ups of some of these solar system-born fossils, but their remoteness has hampered them. New Horizons was created to fix this.

Launched from Cape Canaveral in January 2006, the probe used a flyby of the giant planet Jupiter to increase its speed to over 30,000 miles per hour, reaching Pluto, the Kuiper Belt’s largest object, on July 14, 2015, and relaying data back to Earth. These messages took more than four hours to reach the mission control center, although they were transmitted at the speed of light. They showed breathtaking images of towering mountains of water ice and vast plains of frozen nitrogen.

Pluto has also been found to have a thin blue atmosphere, and the reddish-brown cap of material on its largest moon, Charon, is composed of organic molecules that could be important components of life. For a world in such a distant orbit around the Sun, the dwarf planet and its moons are surprisingly energetic.

After flying past Pluto and Charon, New Horizons plunged into the Kuiper belt and on January 1, 2019, approached Arrokoth, the most distant and most primitive object ever explored by a spacecraft. The images showed that Arrokoth – a Native American term meaning “sky” in the Powhatan Algonquin language – consisted of two lobes that likely formed separately before merging seamlessly into a cloud of particles early in our solar system’s history.

This discovery, combined with New Horizons observations of other Kuiper belt objects, was crucial.

“It taught us a lot about the fundamental properties of planet formation. It was completely transformational,” Michelle Bannister, a planetary scientist at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand, told the magazine. Nature last week.

This view was echoed by Stern, who said: “The Kuiper belt is made up of planetesimals, the building blocks of planets. Thanks to the data sent back by New Horizons, we now understand how these building blocks come together and merge to start the process of planet formation. This is fundamental to understanding our solar system and the planets around other stars.”

It was planned that New Horizons would take another four or five years to complete its journey through the Kuiper belt, named after the Dutch-American astronomer Gerard Kuiper, who suggested its existence in a paper in 1951. During this journey, it was hoped that he might have encountered another planetesimal such as Arrokoth.

But finding such a target near its path through the belt was not easy.

“It is extremely difficult to find another suitable object, but we tried very hard to find it,” Stern said.

“I think there is some frustration at NASA that we don’t have another flyby target yet, and I understand that frustration. We’re working hard to fix this, but it’s a very complex issue. However, stopping our funding only guarantees that there will never be a missed target again.”

New Horizons cost over $800m (£650m) to build and fly to Pluto and beyond. Mission control costs were about $10 million a year. By shifting the mission away from planetary science and the Kuiper belt and focusing instead on heliophysics, the physics of the sun and its connection to the solar system, several million dollars are likely to be cut from this annual budget.

“It’s a false economy,” Stern said. “New Horizons can still do science for the rest of its time in the Kuiper belt. But stopping it next year is scientifically premature and fiscally unwise. I’m very concerned about this and it’s fair to say I’m in good company.”


‘A Little Creepy’: New Shark Species With Bright White Eyes



What with long bright white eyes swims in the deep waters of Australia and attaches eggs to corals?

A new species of shark called Apristurus ovicorrugatus.

The discovery process began several years ago when researchers were looking through uncatalogued material at the Australian National Fish Collection in Hobart, where they found a mysterious egg they couldn’t identify.

This led to a fact-finding mission that eventually revealed a new species of demon cat shark.

The researchers announced their discovery in a paper published in the Journal of Fish Biology titled “What came first, the shark or the egg?

Apristurus genus, the second most diverse group of sharks with about 40 species, commonly known as the ghost shark or cat shark demon. The title is based “on the fact that they live deep and are a bit creepy,” said Helen O’Neill, research technician and one of the paper’s authors. Sharks are bottom feeders and have elongated cat eyes.

But something makes the newly discovered sight even creepier. These cat sharks have bright white irises, which is unusual for deep sea creatures. Miss O’Neill said she could only guess why the shark had such white eyes. They can help them see better in the dark, she says.

Only one other Apristurus cat sharks have white eyes, but researchers were able to tell the difference between two similar species due to their egg shells.

Apristurus ovicorrugatus according to the authors, the shells of the eggs have strong T-shaped ridges; the name ovicorrugatus refers to these corrugated egg cases. The unique markings were first described by scientists in a 2011 paper, which is also the first case record of eggs, but they didn’t have enough evidence to determine it was a new species.

The egg cases helped researchers learn that the new species lays its eggs by attaching them to corals, which prevents them from being carried away by currents.

Using egg morphology and other methods such as studying teeth, scales, genetics and the liver, the scientists were able to write and submit the first draft of the study, but it was not accepted due to lack of genetic material, Ms. O’Neill. said.

She feared that the process could drag on for 20 years. “I may die before that happens,” she said.

The researchers needed more evidence, but they were unable to obtain genetic material from the original egg shell sample because it had already been stored and the eggs themselves also contain too much collagen to be properly tested.

Then at the end of last year exploratory journey Eggs of Apristurus ovicorrugatus have been found off the coast of Western Australia. “It was so lucky,” said Miss O’Neill.

Shark reproduction varies greatly, with some laying eggs, others incubating them inside, and still others giving birth to live young. But Apristurus The genus demonstrates a method of laying eggs in pairs, one for each ovary, of which these sharks have two. This results in two egg cases.

And in one of those eggs the researchers found, there was an embryo that could provide the necessary genetic material.

This is the last piece of the puzzle, Miss O’Neill thought, in proving that this is a new species.

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5 best psychological theories of Sigmund Freud



This article was originally published on May 6, 2022.

When we tell our friends about a crazy dream we had with them, or when we use terms like ego and free association, we are referring to Sigmund Freud.

More than 80 years after his death, Freud’s theories about the human unconscious and how it affects our behavior continue to permeate Western culture. Freud’s pioneering psychological theories, presented to the world at the turn of the 20th century, changed our understanding of the human mind. His theories have influenced not only psychological theory, but also the way we behave in everyday life, in the family and at work. life.

Freud’s psychoanalytic theory

Terms like sleep analysis, free association, Oedipus complexthe Freudian slip and the ubiquitous ego, and id and superegowoven into much of what we do, think and say.

1. Sleep analysis

In modern society, we often talk about our dreams. If you google “dream quotes” there seems to be an endless supply of them. From bestselling author Erma Bombeck’s joke, “It takes a lot of guts to show your dreams to someone else,” to the American rapper and actor, Tupac Shakur lyrics, “Reality is wrong. Dreams are real.” But it is Freud who reveals what a dream is – an alternative reality that we experience when we sleep.

“The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind,” writes Freud.

Freud’s theory of dreams and his book The Interpretation of Dreams., were revolutionary. Before its publication in 1899, scientists considered dreams to be “meaningless”. Freud believed that dreams were “the disguised fulfillment of repressed childhood desires”.

While popular culture has taken Freud’s theories and applied their meaning – for example, dreams about flying mean that you are subconsciously thinking about ambition – Freud never wrote a dream dictionary. In fact, he shied away from such specifics. He insisted that although dreams are symbolic, they are specific to the individual and cannot be defined in general for the entire society.

2. Free association

Freud’s dream theories directly influenced his free association theory. Based on the theory that dreams and their meanings are individual, Freud allowed his patients to interpret their dreams for themselves, instead of giving them their own opinion. He called his process free association. With each new feature of a dream during a psychoanalytic session, Freud suggested that his patients relax and—to use a modern term—spit out what they thought it meant. Patients threw out ideas as they came, no matter how trivial they might be.

3. Reports on Freud

One of the most popular phrases from Freud’s theories: Freudian slip. He believed that a “slip of the tongue” – when we say something that we are not going to say – shows what we are thinking, subconsciously. Freud presented his theory of the Freudian slip in his 1901 book. Psychopathology of everyday life, and suggested that these verbal (and sometimes written) errors were rooted in “unconscious urges” and “unexpressed desires”. In addition, Freud believed that the inability to remember something – for example, someone’s address or name – is due to our need or desire to suppress it. Modern science has yet to explain why Freudian slips happen.

4. Oedipus complex, penis envy and womb envy

Experts believe Oedipus complex, psychosexual theory, as Freud’s most controversial theory. According to Freud, this is an unconscious desire that begins at the phallic stage of development, between the ages of three and six. The child is sexually attracted to its parent of the opposite sex and is jealous of its parent of the same sex.

Popular culture uses the Oedipus complex as a general term for the phase for both boys and girls. But Freud postulated that boys experience an Oedipus complex and girls an Electra complex. This is when a girl unconsciously becomes sexually attached to her father and is hostile to her mother.

Freud believed that the Oedipus complex was “the central phenomenon of the sexual period of early childhood”, but there is no scientific evidence to support his theory.

“Penis envy” grew out of Freud’s theory of the Oedipus complex, and Freud published it in 1908. Freud believed that a woman’s realization that she does not have a penis leads to intense envy, which underlies female behavior.

“Freud claimed that the only way to overcome this penis envy was to have a child of his own, and even went so far as to suggest that he wanted a male child in his efforts to gain a penis,” the researcher writes. British Psychological Society. Psychoanalyst Karen Horney, a contemporary of Freud whose theories led to the feminist psychology movement, saw penis envy as purely symbolic.

Horney postulated that envy, not of the phallus itself, but of the envy of the penis, had more to do with a woman’s position in society and “the desire for social prestige and position that men experience.” Thus, women felt inferior because of the freedom and social status they lacked because of their gender, and not because of their literal lack of a phallus,” the author writes. British Psychological Society.

In addition, Horney introduces the term “womb envy” and explains that men are negatively affected by their inability to have children and envy the “biological functions of the female sex”, including breastfeeding and pregnancy.

5. Ego, Id and Superego

Somebody think human psyche as the most enduring psychoanalytic theory in Freud’s career. Freud published his personality theory in 1923, which hypothesizes that the human psyche is divided into three parts – the ego, the id, and the superego. And they all develop at different stages of our lives. It is important to note that Freud believed that these are not physical objects in our brains, but rather “systems”.

While the word “ego” is used much more frequently in popular culture than “id” and “superego”, the three are related. According to Freud, the id is the most primitive part of the human psyche. This is the basis of our sexual and aggressive urges. The superego is our moral compass, and the ego is the judge, if you will, between the pulls of the id and the superego.

Freud’s psychological theories remain in our subconscious and consciousness

The next time you wake up from a strange dream that you can tell your best friend in detail, he will respond: “Oh, snakes? This dream is all about penis envy.” Or your boss yells at you and you mutter under your breath, “Too ego.” Or you are killing time on a long car ride and throwing away words and free associations – you have to thank Freud. And, if you’re looking for a reason to pay tribute to Freud and all of his contributions to our folk, pop culture and therapy, consider raising a toast to the father of psychoanalysis. He was born on May 6, 1856.

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Peloton remembers bikes as a pain in the ass



For some reason the seats fall off the bikes.


Sticking to a workout or exercise regimen is already a headache for some, and if you own one of the Peloton exercise bikes, you can really experience a pain in the butt from the seats coming off.

According to According to a US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) report, Peloton is recalling over two million exercise bikes (model PL01) because the seats could fall off or worse, the seatpost could break.

Be that as it may, this is not the first major recall for the company. In 2021, the company recalled several models of treadmills after numerous injuries and even death.

The report mentions that Peloton bikes bearing this model number may “break down during use, creating a fall and injury hazard to the user.” The peloton repeated these statements in Press releaseconfirming that models sold between January 2018 and May 2023 in the US may be defective.

The CPSC said there were more than two dozen reports on the issue, confirming at least 13 injuries due to seats breaking or falling off during use. As a result, Peloton offers free repairs and owners can even apply for repairs. online form and get a free replacement.

If you have a Peloton bike, you can check the model number inside the front fork or the white model numbers from the Peloton logo on the side. At the moment, refunds are not possible if they are outside the normal refund window, but the company replaces seats and posts free of charge.

by using TechCrunch

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