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By fighting the ozone hole, we helped curb climate change | The science



At the time of signing, the Montreal Protocol was considered a blessing to the planet. A new study shows that it was even better than anyone could have imagined.
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This article is from Hakai Magazine, an online publication about science and society in coastal ecosystems. Read more stories like this at

In 1985, the British Antarctic Survey warned the world that a giant hole was forming in the atmosphere high above the South Pole in the Earth’s protective ozone layer. World leaders quickly gathered to work out a solution. Two years later, the United Nations agreed to ban chemicals that erode the layer of the stratosphere that protects the Earth from solar ultraviolet radiation. Known as the Montreal Protocol Agreement, it is still one of the most widely ratified UN treaties.

The Montreal Protocol was a victory for diplomacy and the stratosphere. But the agreement, unknown to its signatories at the time, also came as an unexpected hedge against climate catastrophe. ace new study reveals that the aptly named ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) that created the hole over Antarctica are also responsible for the 30 percent temperature rise we observed worldwide from 1955 to 2005.

Michael Sigmond, a climate scientist at Environment and Climate Change Canada, is the lead author of a new study that calculates the ability of ODS to capture greenhouse gases. The contribution of substances to global warming, he says, is “greater than most people realize.”

The Montreal Protocol governs almost 100 ozone-eating chemicals. Many of these are related to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals popularized in the 1930s for use in aerosol cans, foam plastics, and refrigerators. Compared to the many toxic and flammable alternatives they replaced, CFCs were considered miracle chemicals, and by the early 1970s the world was producing almost a million tons of them a year.

Graph showing low ozone levels

Since the signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, the world has stopped using almost 99 percent of ozone-depleting substances. The red graph shows hotspots of low ozone in 2019. Although the situation has greatly improved from the worst levels in the 1990s and 2000s, the United Nations says the ozone hole over Antarctica will not close until 2066.

NASA Earth Observatory

CFCs are inert and therefore do not react with other gases. Instead, they tend to accumulate in the atmosphere and drift where the wind takes them, hanging in the air for long periods of time. 85 years old or more. Once they reach the stratosphere, the second layer of the Earth’s multi-layered atmosphere, the CFCs begin to break down. They are “destroyed by photons,” explains Dennis Hartmann, a climate scientist at the University of Washington who was not involved in the study. This jet noise caused a hole in the ozone layer.

In the troposphere, the lowest level of the atmosphere where fewer photons reach, ODSs act as persistent greenhouse gases. Back in 1987, scientists knew that ODSs captured some solar radiation, but didn’t know how much. Only recently Scientists are gathering evidence that ODSs are, in fact, one of the most destructive warming agents of the past half century.

The effects of this warming are intensifying at the poles. The work of Zsigmond and colleagues shows that if ODS had never been mass-produced—if atmospheric concentrations had remained at 1955 levels—the Arctic today would be at least 55% colder and there would be 45% more sea ice. September.

ODS production stabilized in the 1990s. But because they are so long-lived, these gases are still circulating, and the warming they cause continues to increase. But it could have been much worse. By banning ODS, the Montreal Protocol inadvertently prevented 1°C warming by 2050.

With the Montreal Protocol, world leaders rallied around an urgent matter. In the process, we inadvertently abandoned the second largest factor in global warming. The windfall benefits for the global climate, says Suzanne Tegtmeier, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Saskatchewan who was not involved in the study, “could be considered a very welcome and very positive side effect.”

While it has taken a lot more negotiation and innovation to start displacing the main driver of climate change, carbon dioxide, the Montreal Protocol proves the power of collective action and shows how addressing environmental challenges can help us in ways we didn’t expect.

This article is from Hakai Magazine, an online publication about science and society in coastal ecosystems. Read more stories like this at

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Guam prepares for Typhoon Mawar: ‘We are in the crosshairs’



Typhoon Mawar, a monstrous Category 4 storm, was due to hit Guam on Wednesday as forecasters warned the island must be prepared for a “direct strike”.

Authorities urged residents of the US island territory to move to higher ground and seek shelter if there are any concerns about the stability of their homes. Island Governor Lou Leon Guerrero ordered the evacuation of residents of flood-prone coastal areas on Tuesday evening.

“Current forecasts are not favorable for our island,” she said in her address on Tuesday evening. “We are under the gunpoint of Typhoon Mawar.”

By Wednesday noon Mawar maximum sustained wind speed According to the National Weather Service, he had to maintain this speed during the night as he moved towards the island. The typhoon is expected to be the worst storm to hit Guam in two decades, and officials have warned that power or water supplies could be out in some areas for days or weeks.

“If you are in doubt about your safety, please go to the shelter immediately,” the agency said early Wednesday morning, saying the island would take “significant hitfrom fierce winds and storm surges. “Conditions will rapidly deteriorate.”

President Joe Biden has approved a state of emergency that will help mobilize resources for the island. Leon Guerrero wrote to the White House as Mawar approached, saying the emergency would help mitigate the effects of “this imminent disaster,” saying it was “particularly important given our distance from the continental United States,” according to the Associated Press. informed.

Guam has a population of about 170,000, three US military bases and about 6,400 military personnel. As a precaution, the military took all the ships out to sea and the personnel on the island took shelter in place.

The New York Times reported on the territory introduced more stringent building codes and warning systems in recent years to minimize injury and damage.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the same storms: The term typhoon is used for storms over the Pacific Northwest that affect Asia.

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Abortion bans scare away doctors and threaten basic health care



Conservative states push to ban abortion after overthrow Row vs Calf leads to an initial consequence that opponents of abortion may not have considered: fewer health services available to all women living in these states.

Physicians show by their words and actions that they do not want to practice in places where making the best decision for the patient can result in huge fines or even jail time. And when abortion clinics close, all other services offered there also close, including regular checkups, breast cancer screening, and contraception.

Concerns about the consequences for women’s health are not limited to abortion rights advocates. The recent warning comes from Jerome Adams, who served as chief surgeon in the Trump administration.

V tweet thread in April, Adams wrote that “the trade-off of limited access (and criminalization of physicians) to a reduction in the number of abortions could result in you actually making pregnancy less safe for everyone and increasing infant and maternal mortality.”

The first signs of an impending medical brain drain appeared in February, when 76% of respondents survey of more than 2000 current and future doctors said they wouldn’t even apply for jobs or training in states with abortion restrictions. In other words, the study authors wrote in accompanying article“Many qualified candidates will no longer even consider working or studying in more than half of the US states.”

Indeed, states with abortion bans saw a larger decline in the number of medical graduates applying for residency in 2023 compared to states without abortion bans, according to the study. Association of American Medical Colleges study. While OB/GYN filings across the country have declined, the number of states with total abortion bans has more than halved compared to states with no restrictions (10.5% vs. 5.2%).

This means that fewer doctors will perform important preventive measures such as Pap smears and screening for sexually transmitted infections that can lead to infertility.

The care of pregnant women is at particular risk as hospitals in rural areas close maternity wards because they cannot find enough specialists to staff them, a problem that predates the abortion order but has only gotten worse since then.

In March, Bonner General Health, the only hospital in Sandpoint, Idaho, announced the termination of employment and delivery servicesdue in part to “Idaho’s legal and political climate” in which state legislators continue to “introduce and pass bills criminalizing physicians for medical care that is nationally recognized as the standard of care.”

Heartbreaking reports from around the country show that the abortion ban is also endangering the health of some patients who survive a miscarriage another other non-viable pregnancies. Earlier this year, pregnant woman with a non-viable fetus in Oklahoma was told to wait in the parking lot until she got sick after being told the doctors “can’t touch you unless you crash in front of us.”

A study by researchers at the State University of New York at Buffalo, published in the journal Women’s Health Issues, found that doctors practicing in states with restrictive abortion policies less likely than those in states with pro-abortion policies are trained to perform the same early abortion procedures that are used for women who have had an early miscarriage.

But more than a shortage of doctors, it can complicate pregnancy and childbirth. The states with the tightest abortion restrictions are also less likely to offer support services for low-income mothers and children. Even before the coup caviarA Commonwealth Fund reportAn unbiased research team found that the maternal mortality rate in states with restrictions or bans on abortion was 62% higher than in states where abortion was more affordable.

Women who know their pregnancy may be high risk will think twice about getting pregnant or getting pregnant in states with abortion restrictions. Carmen Brosder, an Idaho woman who described her difficulties caring for a sick miscarriage. in a series of viral videos on tik tok, told ABC News she doesn’t plan to try to get pregnant again.

“Why would I want my daughter to almost lose her mom again just to have another baby?” She said. “It seems selfish and wrong.”

Once upon a time, the anti-abortion movement seemed more sensitive to arguments that its policies neglected the needs of women and children. Rep. Barney Frank (Democratic Republic of Massachusetts), who once said: “Conservatives believe that from the point of view of the federal government, life begins at conception and ends at birth.”

In fact, an icon of the anti-abortion movement, Rep. Henry Hyde (D-Illinois), who died in 2007, is put an end to the partnership with Liberal Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA) on legislation to expand Medicaid coverage and provide additional benefits to address infant mortality in the late 1980s.

Few anti-abortion groups are following suit, promoting policies that make it easier for people to get pregnant, have children, and raise children. Most of these efforts go unnoticed.

This year, Americans United for Life and Democrats for America’s Life released a joint position paper urging politicians to “make birth free”. Among their offerings are automatic insurance coverage without deductibles and copayments for pregnancy and childbirth; removing incentives to pay for caesarean sections and hospital deliveries; and a “monthly maternity stipend” for the first two years of a child’s life.

“Giving free births to American mothers can and should become a national alliance in a particularly divided time,” the document says. Such a policy could not only make it easier for women to start a family, but also solve sad record of maternal mortality.

However, in a year when the same Republican legislators who support the national abortion ban are pushing even more vehemently for massive federal budget cuts, it looks like child ban policy will move very far, or very quickly.

This puts adversaries at a crossroads: will they follow Hyde’s example and champion policies that expand and protect access to health care? Or will women’s health suffer from the victory of the anti-abortion movement?

KN (Kaiser Health News) is a nationwide newsroom dedicated to in-depth health journalism. Together with Policy Analysis and Polling, KHN is one of the three major operational programs in KFF (Kaiser Family Foundation). KFF is a charitable non-profit organization providing health information to the nation.

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Why is talking therapy so effective?



in memoirs, group, the young law student ranked first in her class, but in her personal life she struggled with an eating disorder, suicidal thoughts and problems in her intimate life. An acquaintance introduced her to a psychotherapist who recommended that she sign up for group therapy sessions.

The author had to open up to other group members in her sessions and share parts of herself that she would rather hide. In turn, she listened as the other members of the group told their own stories and asked questions about the parts of their lives that made the least sense. The author has been conducting group therapy sessions for decades and has credited them with saving her life.

Psychotherapy (also known as talking therapy is an approach that some historians believe goes back to ancient times. In recent decades, scientists have learned to measure the benefits of talking therapy. In some cases, researchers believe that talking therapy is the best.

What is Talk Therapy?

Talk therapy it is when a person meets with a licensed mental health professional to address their concerns. There are various reasons a person might seek help with talk therapy, including stress, coping with trauma, or certain symptoms such as irritability.

Psychotherapists use a variety of techniques, including problem-solving strategies, mindfulness, or behavior tracking. A therapist may use cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to help a person change their behavior patterns. An example of cognitive behavioral therapy would be confronting fear with exposure therapy.

Does psychotherapy work?

Psychotherapy is effective, and two-thirds of people who took part in talking therapy said their mental health improved. They reported less depression, anxiety and neurotic behavior.

Researchers have also found that psychotherapy benefits people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a 2019 study V JAMA Psychiatry, The authors conducted a meta-analysis of 12 randomized clinical trials involving 922 people treated for post-traumatic stress disorder. Participants were treated with either psychotherapy, pharmaceuticals, or a combination of both strategies.

The authors did not see any evidence that pharmaceuticals are an effective first-line treatment. At follow-up, psychotherapy showed greater benefit than medication. The study confirmed previous research that talking therapy provides the most lasting relief for people with post-traumatic stress disorder.

2016 study V depression and anxiety, for example, came to the conclusion that talking therapy should be the first approach to PTSD. The authors analyzed 55 studies that included 6,313 people who were undergoing a variety of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder, including medication and talking therapy. People who were treated with talking therapy were less likely to drop out of the treatment program.

The authors found that the effects of talk therapy were stronger than those of pharmaceuticals, leading them to conclude: “… for all measures considered in this study, [trauma-focused psychotherapies] outweighed the drugs.

Read more: Do antidepressants change your personality?

Benefits of Talk Therapy

Versatility is an advantage psychotherapy. While one person may benefit from one-on-one talk therapy, another may benefit from support in a group setting. In memoirs groups the author described how she struggled with overeating and admitted to her therapist that she ate seven apples in one sitting. He called her habit of secrecy problematic and encouraged her to call a member of the group every day to report what she ate. She found accountability useful.

Researchers are looking at other ways in which talking therapy can be effective in a variety of settings. A 2020 study in Overview of Clinical Psychology A review of the literature on studies of the effectiveness of talking therapy in a natural setting was carried out.

Between 1994 and 2019, they found 38 relevant articles that detailed outdoor psychotherapy. One of the common themes was that nature-based talk therapy worked in situations where both client and clinician felt at peace in a natural space. They also found that outdoor settings work for people who are uncomfortable or embarrassed by the idea of ​​conventional therapy.

Outdoor therapy can allow the client or therapist to apply metaphors from the natural world to life. For example, a person may think about how a gardener can plant a seed and grow a growing plant, but external factors mean that the outcome is out of his control.

New types of talking therapy

Metaphors of the nature of middle age about the personal problems of life are one of the many new twists in the approach to talking therapy. Psychotherapy as a term came into use at the end of the nineteenth century, but in the middle of the twentieth century it was overshadowed psychoanalysis.

In psychoanalysis, clients stretched out on a couch facing the therapist and recounted their memories of once-forgotten events. Over time, the analyst offered to understand what was bothering the person’s thinking, which was to reduce anxiety and bring a sense of peace.

This method was most associated with the famous neurologist Sigmund Freud, who often attributed clients’ problems to one of his unproven theories. A woman’s anxiety, for example, can be diagnosed as a symptom of penis envy.

One historian described how Freud’s approach fell out of favor “… because of his frequent refusal to take the morbid reasoning of patients at face value; instead, he forced them to confess to esoteric sexual fantasies.”

How to find a therapist

In contrast to psychoanalysis, advocates of talk therapy during Freud’s time encouraged clinicians to be empathetic to the client and to acknowledge “their real sources of distress”.

Today, clients are encouraged to find a therapist that best suits their needs. Many psychotherapists specialize in treating specific conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder or anxiety. Others use special therapies like CBT and some offer different settings like virtual or outdoor.

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) recommends that people conduct preliminary interviews with potential therapists and they offer a list of questions on their website that clients can ask potential therapists during the meet and greet.

If a therapist doesn’t feel like a match, NIMH advises people to keep looking because “mutual understanding and trust are essential” in a client-therapist relationship.

Read more: How effective is Alcoholics Anonymous?

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